LARGE-BILLED PARROTS (TANYGNATHUS) Genus Description
The species in this genus are medium to large parrots with very large, heavy bills and proportionately short slightly rounded tails, giving them a "topheavy" appearance, especially in flight. Sexual dimorphism is slight; young birds are duller than adults.
The Black-lored Parrot
Little is known about the Black-lored Parrot except that its habits are generally nocturnal and that it is heard more at night than during the day. The Black-lored is found only on the island of Buru, just west, north west of Ceram. Its call is similar to that of the Great-billed Parrot hut is more drawn out and higher in pitch. Like the Muller's, the male has a rose colored bill and the female's hill is horn colored.
Habitat: They inhabit mountainous areas but have been occasionally observed along the lower coastal regions.
The Muller's Parrot (Taitygnatbus sumatranus)
Also called the Blue-backed-Parrot, this species is basically a dominant green. The blue on its back and rump is its most distinctive feature. The male's blue is normally more extensive than the female's. The tail is tipped with a greenish yellow. Tn adults the sexes are easy to identify as the male's bill is a rose red color and the female's is horn colored. The iris is pale yellow to
almost white. Immature birds resemble the female.The Species also includes the Ruf us-tailed Parrot which is based on a single specimen (according to Parrots of tbe World) and that this specimen was probably an aberrant T sumatranus. This bird had a reddish brown bib and also reddish brown coloring of the under tail coverts.
References. Porshaw 0973), Juniper & Parr 0998) Habitat. lowland forest. especially forest edges and trees in cultivation; they tend to avoid dense forest.
Subspecies: There are five known sub-species: Ts. sangirensis, Ts. burbidgii, Ts. eoeretti. Ts. duponti, T s.freeri.
Indigenous areas: The Muller's parrot inhabits the islands around the Philippines and the Islands of Taulaud and Sangir. They also are found on the island of Sulawesi and related islands in Indonesia. These birds are relatively quiet during the day but can have a harsh voice and are active and noisy at night. As with most parrots, they can be very destructive.
The Philippine Blue-naped closely resembles the Great-hilled Parrot, more so than the other species in the Tanygnatbus genus. One of the striking similarities is the wing marking. Although noticeably smaller
in size, the overall color is green with variations on the wing that closely emulate those of the Greatbilled Parrot. The nape of the neck has a light shade of blue and the tip on the tail is not yellow. The rump is brilliant green and there is black on the bend of the wing.
Subspecies: There are two known sub-species: T l. bybridus, T l. talautensis.
Huge red bill. Bright green head, upper mantle, and upper-tailcoverts. The feathers of the lower mantle are dull green and tipped pale blue. Back and rump are pale blue. Under-parts greenish-yellow; thighs green. Under-wing-coverts and sides of breast are yellow; yellow across underside of flight feathers. Scapulars and lesser wingcoverts are black with broadly margined yellow; greater wing-coverts green edged with greenish-yellow; primaries and secondaries are blue, outer webs are narrowly edged green. Tail above green, tipped with green-yellow, below dusky yellow. In flight narrow wings are bright yellow with thin tapered tail. Iris yellow-white; legs green-gray. Immature: have little or no black on wings.
Habitat: favors coastal forests including mangroves; far less common than Muller's Parrot; coastal areas only.
Characteristics: Given that much information on parrot distribution and population levels has been inferred from studies of parrots in flight, very little is known about the Great-billed Parrots. While studying large parrots in-situ, two factors were studied - flight frequency and flight duration. During watches from vantage-points overlooking forest patches on the island of Sumba, Indonesia. Greatbilled Parrots T megalorhynchus flew most often in the early morning and late afternoon. Compared to the other psitticine species inhabiting the same area the Great-billed flights were some of the most frequent and longest.
Subspecies: There are seven known sub species: T m. affinis, T m. subaffinis, T m. bellmayri, T m. viridipennis, T m. djampeae, T m. floris, T m. sumbensis
Juniper T: Parr M: Parrots: A Guide to Parrots of the World Yale Univ. Press, New I raven. Conn. 1998
Forshaw .J; Parrots of the World 2nd edition. TF.H. Publications. Inc., Neptune NJ 1977
Strange M: Birds cf Indonesia. A Photographic Guide lo the. Publisher, Eric Oey Pcriplus Editions (J IK) Ltd. 2001 Alderton D. Dr: Tbe A/las of' Parrots. TFH. Publications. Inc. Neptune, HJ 1991